Development of the system of fountains in Peterhof
The fountain system in Peterhof was designed by Russia’s hydraulics engineer V.Tuvolkov. It was completed in 1721-22.
Fountains in the Lower Park
Unlike the common fountain systems employing pumps in order to feed fountains with water, the water-supplying system of the Lower Park is operated by natural gravity. The problem was solved by making use of the geographical position of the territory. The water comes from many springs at the hills of Ropsha located in 22 km from St Petersburg and 60 meters above the sea level. Water flows down to Peterhof by 9 canals, and then comes to 16 large artificial ponds.
The fountains under the earth
The second level is nearly 16 meters above the sea. From these ponds, moved by gravity, water runs through underground pipes to the fountains. Then the water empties into the Gulf of Finland.